My Tech notes: September 2008

Unix Documentation

Free Online Unix Training Materials

Lists many links to free Unix training materials.

Pointers and Arrays Materials

Pointers and Arrays materials Explained for C beginners

C FAQ and General Questions C Interview Questions

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Monday, September 29, 2008

7 Steps to Making Your Future Clearer and Brighter

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Along with lack of motivation, such factors as vagueness, uncertainty and lack of clarity are among the key reasons of our bad habits, discouragement and procrastination. For those who are determined to fight with these problems and look for positive changes in their life, I would like to offer a strategy created by Dr. Brian Tracy, an experienced time management specialist, lecturer and business coach, who wrote several books of special techniques and recommendations for those who suffer from chronic procrastination and lack of personal effectiveness. He argues that everyone who wants to be successful in this world has to define own goals and aspirations. This can be done in the following 7 steps:

Step 1. Decide
Step 2. Think on paper
Step 3. Estimate an optimistic deadline and a pessimistic deadline for your goals
Step 4. Think about everything you need to do, learn or accomplish in order to achieve your goals
Step 5. Organize
Step 6. Take action!
Step 7. Make a habit of doing something
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Saturday, September 27, 2008

TNUSRB Results Tamilnadu Police Result

Tamil Nadu Uniformed Service Recruitment Board had announced the results and recruitment notifications. Recruitment Notifications from Tamilnadu Government can be checked at these websites.

Tamil Nadu Uniformed Service Recruitment Board (TNUSRB)

Results and Notification regarding the TNUSRB can be found at the following links

Following are some of the TNUSRB links of Interest.,,,, railways, iti results,,,, iti results, tnusrb, railways, southern railway reservation, railways, tnusrb

List of candidates provisionally selected for Endurance Test, Physical Measurement & Physical Efficiency Test
Recruitment Notifications from Tamilnadu Government can be checked at these websites.

The Tamilnadu Uniformed Service Recruitment Board was constituted to select suitable personnel in various categories for the following departments:
i) Police Department : a) Sub-Inspectors of Police (Men & Women)

b) Grade II Police Constables (Men & Women)

c) Sub Inspectors (Technical) (Men & Women)

ii) Fire & Rescue Services : Firemen
iii) Prison Department : Jail Warders (Men & Women

2. The Government constituted the TNUSRB with the following composition:-

i) Chairman : A Police Officer in the rank of DGP either serving or
ii) Member : A serving or retired Police Officer in the rank of ADGP
iii) Member Secretary : A Police Officer in the rank of IG of Police

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Doubling Your Strengths?

However, the message is confusing. It says: To be successful, we need only half of our selves—our strengths. By redefining the concept of strengths, I have created a framework that describes all of the ways that a person can think, feel, and behave as strengths.

How is it that we don't have weaknesses?

We are so used to thinking in a positive-negative framework, which is a self-limiting way of thinking. So, it's almost natural that when we think about a strength we have, we immediately start looking for a negative, or a weakness. For example, if you see yourself in positive terms as outgoing and gregarious, you might think negatively about yourself when you are quiet and less expressive. I want you to see yourself not in terms of strengths and weaknesses but in terms of opposite strengths.
By learning how to exploit your "weaknesses," you can turn them to your advantage

Do you believe—as most of us have been led to—that you have strengths and weaknesses? Psychologist Tommy Thomas believes something quite different: that people have only strengths. He believes that once you get hold of the idea that your weaknesses are actually strengths, you'll have twice as many personal strengths—ones not often recognized—to draw on.

Tommy was in my neck of the woods recently to give a speech to a group of CEOs, and we met at my house for a conversation about strengths. Here are edited excerpts of our conversation:

Can you explain how you define a strength?

TT: A strength is a conceptual way to reduce a lot of information into a single idea. We use these ideas to identify specific related aspects of a person's ability to think, feel, and behave.

We are taught early on that those things that we are not good at are "weaknesses" and should be disguised and ignored
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Thursday, September 25, 2008

When Was The OSF Founded Unix

The Open Software Foundation (OSF) was an organization founded in 1988 to create an open standard for an implementation of the Unix operating system.
The founding of the organization was largely seen as a response to the collaboration between AT&T and Sun Microsystems on UNIX System V Release 4, and a fear that other vendors would be locked out of the standardization process. This led Scott McNealy of Sun to quip that "OSF" really stood for "Oppose Sun Forever."
OSF's standard Unix implementation was known as OSF/1 and was first released in 1992.[2] For the most part, it was a failure; by the time OSF stopped development of OSF/1 in 1994, the only vendor using OSF/1 was Digital, which rebranded it Digital UNIX
In February 1996 the new OSF merged with X/Open to become The Open Group.

Despite the similarity in name and the fact that both groups were based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, there was never any connection between OSF and the Free Software Foundation.

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C Program Usage fseek fopen ftell and fprintf

I need a c program to write update values in a file. Here is simple logic for it.
open file.
set the file pointer using fseek. (same as lseek)
write the value.
close the file.
int fseek(FILE *stream, long offset, int whence);

off_t lseek(int fildes, off_t offset, int whence);
The lseek function repositions the offset of the file descriptor fildes to the argument
offset according to the directive whence as follows:

The offset is set to offset bytes.

The offset is set to its current location plus offset bytes.

The offset is set to the size of the file plus offset bytes.

Some more notes on this;
From step one one can open file in read mode or r+ mode; then in second step set the file pointer to the end of file using fseek, with SEEK_END.
using fprintf update the values in file.

The other way to do this is open file in append mode, then no need to setting file pointer, as if file is opened in append mode; the file pointer will be set at end of file;

here is c code snippet.


int main()
FILE *fptr;
int pos;
fptr = fopen("root","a");

if(fptr != NULL)
pos= ftell(fptr);

printf("pos %d\n",pos);
printf("can't open file\n");
return 0;

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Encyclopedia of Life - by the World's Leading Scientists

An epic effort to promote biodiversity and document all 1.8 million named species on the planet.

When completed, will serve as a global biodiversity tool, providing scientists, policymakers, students, and citizens information they need to discover and protect the planet and encourage learning and conservation.

The Encyclopedia of Life is a collaborative scientific effort led by the Field Museum of Natural History, Harvard University, Marine Biological Laboratory, Missouri Botanical Garden, Smithsonian Institution, and Biodiversity Heritage Library, a consortium including the core institutions and also the American Museum of Natural History (New York), Natural History Museum (London), New York Botanical Garden, and Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew).
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Connected Life: Encyclopedia of Life
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"Imagine an electronic page for each species of organism on Earth, available everywhere by single access on command." - Edward O. Wilson

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is an ambitious project to organize and make available via the Internet virtually all information about life present on Earth.
At its heart lies a series of Web sites—one for each of the approximately 1.8 million known species.
Each site is constantly evolving and features dynamically synthesized content ranging from historical literature and biological descriptions to stunning images, videos and distribution maps. Join us as we explore the richness of Earth’s biodiversity!
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Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link 1833

Death Cap Mushroom

Anolis carolinensis VOIGT 1832

Green anole

Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)

Yellow fever mosquito

Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771

Peregrine falcon

Hecastocleis shockleyi Gray


Jalmenus evagoras Donovan 1805

Imperial Blue Butterfly

Solanum tuberosum L.


Theobroma cacao L.


Chromis abyssus Pyle, Earle & Greene, 2008

Deep Blue Chromis

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

Madagascar periwinkle

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A conversation with Chris Anderson
The Encyclopedia of Life, video demo
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E.O. Wilson: TED Prize wish: Help build the Encyclopedia of Life

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Tuesday, September 23, 2008

T-Mobile G1 Google Android phone Youtube Collection

T-Mobile customers, order your G1 today while they last
Order the new T-Mobile G1 for as low as $179.99 (plus taxes and fees; two-year agreement required), exclusive to T-Mobile customers only, and be one of the first to get the T-Mobile G1 delivered right to your door as early as October 22, 2008.
check out live announcement
T-Mobile G1 Google Android phone
Here's a first look at the T-Mobile G1 Google Android phone. Hands on demo to follow

This is Google's first entry into the mobile phone market
T-Mobile G1 Google Android First Commercial


Monday, September 22, 2008

Where Linux User Group Information Stored

Where does linux stores user and group information?

User names and primary groups are stored in /etc/passwd. This file can be directly edited using the 'vi' editor, although this is not recommended. Format of the file is

* User name (normally all lower case)
* Password (encrypted - only contains the letter 'x')
* User ID (a unique number of each user)
* Primary Group ID
* Comment (Normally the person's full name)
* Home directory (normally /home/
* Default shell (normally /bin/bash)

Each field is separated by a colon.

for example:
# cat /etc/passwd
guest:x:1002:1000:guest comment:/home/guest:
Says two users admin and guest on my linux box.
Also it is having cat /etc/passwd- file which contains same information as cat /etc/passwd

Passwords for each user are stored in /etc/shadow. This file should only be changed using the passwd command.

# cat /etc/shadow
It is having cat /etc/shadow- file which contains same information as cat /etc/shadow

Group information is stored in /etc/group. This file can be directly edited using the 'vi' editor. Format of the file is

* Group name
* Group password (hardly ever used)
* Group ID
* User names (separated by commas)

Each field is separated by a colon.
# cat /etc/group
It is having cat /etc/group- file which contains same information as cat /etc/shadow
There are two groups everybody and administartors with users are admin,guest and admin respectively.

Sunday, September 21, 2008

C Program for Counting Number of lines from File

C program for counting number of lines from a file.
I was in need to count no of lines from a file,
written simple program to do that.

int no_of_lines()
int i=0,j=0; /* declare a char array */
FILE *file; /* declare a FILE pointer */
char *line;
char *temp=NULL;

file = fopen("/rdisk0/var/log/nas2msg", "r");
/* open a text file for reading */

if(file==NULL) {
return 9;
else {
while( (i=getc(file)) !=EOF) {
/* print the file one line at a time */
if(i == '\n')
printf("line %d",j++);
return j;

Saturday, September 20, 2008

Download Sex And The City Movie Free

Download Sex And The City Movie Free
Sex and the city is meant especially for movie freaks only.

Download Sex and the City Movie

Download Sex and the City Movie Home - Download Sex and the City Movie

Hey Sex and the city movie fans. If you are here then you are a movie freak like me. And Sex and the city is meant especially for movie freaks only. Here we are at your service to provide you the entertainment at your terms and conditions. No more long duration downloading, no more question asking about network connection types. We have a service compatible for every network. You won’t find advertisers to interrupt you when you are here to enjoy only and we have not left any space for commercials and when it’s Sex and the city movie then this is strictly prohibited.
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Thursday, September 18, 2008

Top Ten Online Psychology Tests

Hundreds of online psychology experiments are going on at any given time, many cool and amusing to take part in. They’re great for researchers due to the ease and low cost of finding subjects, and because of that, more data
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Hundreds of online psychology experiments are going on at any given time, many cool and amusing to take part in. They’re great for researchers due to the ease and low cost of finding subjects, and because of that, more data

By design these studies are ephemeral, disappearing from the web once a deadline is reached or enough data collected. In this Top Ten list we’ve chosen to focus on experiments that are long-term, or if data is no longer collected you can still do the experiment for fun. And they are fun!

1. You Just Get Me
2. Bad Vibes
3. The Stroop Tes
5. The Concept of Intentional Action.
6. Project Implicit. The Implicit Association Test
7. Basic Music Intervals.
8. Face Transformer from the Perception Lab at the School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
9. Visual Phenomena & Other Psychological Diversions
10. Casual Fridays at Cognitive Daily.
Each Friday
interactive test for their readers based on research, news, theories or plain curiosity
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Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Infosys TCS Wipro Satyam Patani Firing News Not Infy

After yesterday news on HP firing 24,000 employees IT engineers are worried about news on IT companies firing.

HP 25000 Lay-offs -

Satyam 4500 Job cuts -

Wipro - 2500 Job cuts

This is the cycle and everyone has to sustain this problem. If you see the past 10 years record of IT industry it got changed in 2-3 times majorly in 2003. Satyam and Wipro are service based companies if their client is going to the depth of loss then why they bare the loss it is obvious that they will fired the employees.

The recent IT Lay offs is mainly due to US market slowdowns. And as everyone of us knows that the market is never stable. Who knows that though it is down now, it may grow at a remarkable height.

Also, talking about the IT layoffs, apart from job cuts, these companies are also hiring good numbers on the other hand. Their main motto is to kick-off the low performers and bench holders. Since due to market slowdowns, these companies are finding it hard to feed these low performers and bench holders.

Nothing to worry. Hope for the good. Also, if one has the skills, talent, commitment etc , no company can fire him.

This is once again the firing season for IT. Satyam Computers has just started giving pink slips to its employees and around 4,500 of its employees are scheduled to get the boot.
wipro firing
Wipro Technologies has put about 4-5% of its workforce or about 2,400-3,000 employees, under the scanner for non-performance.
tcs firing
In February, TCS had given pink slips to 500 non-performers.
IBM firing
IBM India also asked about 700 employees to leave, citing non-performance.
patani firing
In July, Patni Computer Systems fired 400 employees.

If the going is tough for these bigwigs, what about those in the lower rung? Mid tier companies are also doling out pink slips in all generosity! Hexaware has reportedly booted out 500 people and this does not include the 130 employees to be laid off due to the shut down of its office in Gurgaon. Ramco Systems laid off 142 employees.
Not true news on infy firing
Well infy is not in mood to fire;
And going completely against the tide is Infosys, which is actually planning to hire 25,000 people this year and is also contemplating recruiting about 1,000 more in China over the next two to three years. Infact insosys have lot of project and infy hyderabad is recruiting people like anything; check today times ascent also. Infy hyderabad is all to set its New campus at Uppal hyderabad.
tcs firing, wipro firing, satyam firing, hp firing, infy firing

Monday, September 15, 2008 ICAI MEF 2008-09 Acknowledgement ICAI MEF 2008-09 Acknowledgement

Institute of Chartered Accountants of India- ICAI
Click here to download your acknowledgement
or direct link
Multipurpose Empanelment Form (MEF) 2008-09
Download Multipurpose Empanelment Form (MEF) for the year 2008-09

meficai,, mef icai, bessel function, dhaka stock exchange

ICAI-Multipurpose Empanelment Form (MEF) 2008-09-MEFICAI. [Last date for submission of applications on the website: 15th September, 2008. Last date for receipt of hard copy of duly signed declaration: 25th September, 2008]

Sunday, September 14, 2008

The mystery of moving rocks is yet to be revealed...

"Over the years there were many speculations and possible explanations made on how the stones move, ranging from supernatural to very complex. Most hypotheses favored by interested geologists posit that strong winds when the mud is wet are at least in part responsible. But some stones weigh as much as a human, which some researchers feel is too heavy for the area's wind to move. They maintain that ice sheets around the stones either help to catch the wind or move in ice flows. But both theories don't explain how two rocks right next to each other could go in two opposite directions or one could stay put while the one three times the size, doesn't. So far every attempt of explanation has been insufficient and purely assumptive. The mystery of moving rocks is yet to be revealed".
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The moving rocks, also known as
sliding rocks or sailing stones, are a geological phenomenon found in Racetrack
Playa, a seasonally dry lake (a playa) located in the Panamint Mountains in
Death Valley National Park , California. The rocks move across the surface of
the playa, leaving long tracks behind them as they go, without human or animal
intervention. They have never been seen or filmed in motion.
Racetrack rocks only move once
every two or three years and most tracks last for just three or four years.
Rocks with rough bottoms leave straight striated tracks while those with smooth
bottoms wander. Most of the moving stones originate from an 850 foot (260 m)
high hillside made of dark dolomite on the south end of the playa, but some are
intrusive igneous rock from adjacent slopes. Tracks are often tens to hundreds
of feet (low to high tens of meters) long, a few to 12 inches (8 to 30 cm) wide,
and typically less than an inch (2.5 cm) deep.
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Friday, September 12, 2008

2008 Summer Paralympic Games - Photos

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