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Showing posts from August, 2008

Dealing with Difficult People

clipped from No matter where we go, we will face people who are negative, people who oppose our ideas, people who piss us off or people who simply do not like us. There are 6.4 billion people out there and conflict is a fact of life Why Bother Controlling Our Responses? Hurting Ourselves - One of my favorite sayings is “Holding a grudge against someone is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.” It’s Not About You, It’s About Them It’s not personal, so why do we take it personally Battle of the Ego Anger Feeds Anger. Negativity Feeds Negativity. - Rarely can any good come out of reacting against someone who is in a negative state Negativity Spreads Freedom of Speech - People are as entitled to their opinions as you are. Allow them to express how they feel and let it be

A question science can't answer?

What is the origin of the universe? Spacetime itself and all the mass-energy in it were created in the Big Bang some 15 billion years ago. Humans are beginning to understand how the laws of physics allowed for the Big Bang to happen, and are even proposing reasons why the laws of physics have to be as they are. However, it may not be knowable why the laws of physics exist at all.

# What is the mechanism of the universe? The universe consists of fermions and bosons interacting through gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Humans can accurately model those interactions using General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics, and may be close to combining these two theories into a unified theory of the universe.

# What is the fate of the universe? There appears not to be enough mass in the universe to halt its (perhaps asymptotic) expansion into a vast emptiness growing steadily colder and darker. clipped from "Can anybody thin… 6th Pay Commission Notification Released is the official website of Press Information Bureau Government of India. The website provides official press releases and news updates. The website is not coming now, I have seen some of the direct links form ministry of finance website, check out below links.
Department of Personnel & Training (DoPT)sixth pay commission notification reports, Information can be obtained from Press Information Bureau or more precise information on 6th pay commission notification is obtained from ministry of finance Govt of india website, one can download full report 6th CPC Report | Annex and study.

The following studies have been taken up by the Commission:

» Studies on Formulating the Concept, Principles, and Parameters for Performance-Related Incentives (PRI) in Government
» Study for Estimating the Compensation Package for Government Employees and the Cost to the Government
» A Study of Terminal Benefits of the Central Government Employees

Sixth Pay Commission …

Copy File From Linux to Linux Machine - Use SCP

Today I learn about how to do secure copy from one linux machine to another linux machine.

To copy files from one linux machine to another linux machine, one has to know login name and password for destination linux machine.

simple use: of scp command.

$ scp localfile username@destination_name or_IP:/dir/

it will prompt for password. provide the password and you file is copied.

Below is compete demo..
$ scp ~bhagwat/.htpasswd root@
root@'s password:
.htpasswd 100% 20 0.0KB/s 00:00

Useful C #define Functions - set clear bit

There are many useful C #define function, as an embedded software engineer, one need to know about some handy #define function. Below is list of some of the #defines which are being used

1. clear bit
#define clear_bit(val, bit) (val &= (~(1<<.bit))) usage: clear_bit(port0,0); clear zero bit of input is unsigned int
2. set bit
#define set_bit(val, bit) (val |= (1<<.bit)) usage: set_bit(port0,0); set zero bit of input is unsigned int

3. Error handling
#define FATAL do { fprintf(stderr, "Error at line %d, file %s (%d) [%s]\n", \
__LINE__, __FILE__, errno, strerror(errno)); exit(1); } while(0)
if opening a file is failed like
if ((fd = open ("/dev/mem", O_RDWR | O_SYNC)) == -1)

strftime - format date and time

strftime - format date and time

size_t strftime(char *s, size_t max, const char *format,
const struct tm *tm);
The strftime() function formats the broken-down time tm according to the format specifica-
tion format and places the result in the character array s of size max.

The strftime() function returns the number of characters placed in the array s, not
including the terminating NUL character, provided the string, including the terminating
NUL, fits. Otherwise, it returns 0, and the contents of the array is undefined.
Note that the return value 0 does not necessarily indicate an error; for example, in many
locales %p yields an empty string.
For more details check man pages.

Virtual Kernel Memory Layout on ARM Linux

Kernel Memory Layout on ARM Linux

Russell King
November 17, 2005 (2.6.15)

This document describes the virtual memory layout which the Linux
kernel uses for ARM processors. It indicates which regions are
free for platforms to use, and which are used by generic code.

The ARM CPU is capable of addressing a maximum of 4GB virtual memory
space, and this must be shared between user space processes, the
kernel, and hardware devices.

As the ARM architecture matures, it becomes necessary to reserve
certain regions of VM space for use for new facilities; therefore
this document may reserve more VM space over time.

Start End Use
ffff8000 ffffffff copy_user_page / clear_user_page use.
For SA11xx and Xscale, this is used to
setup a minicache mapping.

ffff1000 ffff7fff Reserved.
Platforms must not use this address range.

ffff0000 ffff0fff CPU vector page.
The CPU vectors are mapped here if the
CPU supports vector relocation …

ptet2008 Result Jodhpur

Jai narayan vyas university jodhpur, declared ptet 2008 direct link to check the results

ptet2008 results

Site will come have patience.
For ptet 2008 result official site is and not

Pre Teachers Entrance Test Results 2008 seen at
Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur PTET-2008. declared PTET results for 2008,
Jodhpur University is Accredited as 'A' grade University by NAAC-UGC.
The site is not coming due to lot of people checking the site at a time. ptet 2008 result,

even chched page is not coming for

Try out it will come.

All the best.

Members of Steering Committee PTET 2008. 1, Prof. L. K. Shekhawat, Vice Chanceller, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Chairman, PTET-2008, ptet 2008, Pre Teachers Entrance Test, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur PTET 2008,, ptet2008, ptet,

PTET 2008 (Pre Teachers Entrance test) being conducted by Jai Narain Vyas University, J…

How to Format a Hard Drive - wikiHow

Format a Hard Drive - wikiHow

How to Format a Hard Drive
from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit

This article includes the basics for high-level formatting a hard drive.

For Windows XP
If you want to save any of the data on the disk, back it up by copying it to a CD or another hard drive. Formatting will destroy ALL of the data on the disk.
Use the Windows XP CD-ROM to boot the computer.
Select the "Recovery Console" option.
At the prompt, type FORMAT C:

For Windows 9x (95, 98, Me)
If you want to save any of the data on the disk, back it up by copying it to a CD or another hard drive. Formatting will destroy ALL of the data on the disk.
Use a startup floppy (sometimes called a "boot disk") to obtain a DOS prompt.

For Linux or BSD
Boot from a livecd or diskette
Open a terminal window (usually something like xterm or konsole)
Log in as root by typing su and entering the password
Type mkfs.ext2 /dev/hdaxx where you change the ext2 by …

CVS admin Lock Commands Useful

Working on more than one file by multiple developers, need to know CVS commands to control the check in and check out, CVS admin -l command is useful.

cvs admin -l This will lock the present cvs revision of the file. Otherthan the one who holds the lock no one else can commit the file. CVS check-in will fail. cvs admin -u This will unlock the file. Now another user can commit the file or can acquire the lock. If one developer holds lock on the entire directory then others cannot modify any existing files but they can add new files.

Delhi University Results at

delhi university Declared annual Degree Results for year 2008

School of Open Learning Results can be seen from

Annual DU Results - 2008 (Undergraduate/Postgraduate) Check here

About DU
The University of Delhi is the premier university of the country and is known for its high standards in teaching and research and attracts eminent scholars to its faculty.

The University of Delhi was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the then Central Legislative Assembly.
Only three colleges existed then in Delhi: St. Stephens College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which were affiliated to the University. The University thus had a modest beginning with just three colleges, two faculties (Arts and Science) and about 750 students. In October 1933, the University offices and the Library shifted to the Viceregal Lodge Estate, and till today this site is the nucleus of the University (Main Cam…

C-Array Of Strings Manipulation Explained Program

C-Array Of Strings Manipulation Explained
How to declare array of strings?
1. char stringarray[10][10]

2. char *stringarray[10]

I prefer second one for declaration of array of strings,

How to Manipulate Array of strings?
Copy some values in this array,
char *tmp=NULL;

stringarray[0]= malloc(strlen(tmp)+1);
if(stringarray[0] != NULL)

The value from tmp variable is copied to zeroth element of string array.
check out using printf
printf("string array element=%s",stringarray[0]);

Like this one can Do other manipulation on array of strings.

Mumbai University Results

Mumbai University Results declared at
check Mumbai University Results
About University
The University of Mumbai (known earlier as University of Bombay) is one of the oldest and premier Universities in India. It was established in 1857 consequent upon "Wood's Education Dispatch", and it is one amongst the first three Universities in India.

As a sequel to the change in the name of the city from Bombay to Mumbai, the name of the University has been changed from "University of Bombay " to "University of Mumbai " ,vide notification issued by the Government of Maharashtra and published in the Government Gazette dated 4th September, 1996.

ArtsCommerceLaw ArchitectureManagementScienceTechnologyMedicine & Pharmacy


Sixth Pay Commission Report

Law Minister Hansraj Bhardwaj said “The cabinet has approved the 6th pay commission report,” but details are not available.
Here is summary from
All recommendations for hike in salaries of civil and defence personnel accepted.The pay panel recommendations will come into effect from January 1, 2006.Arrears to be paid in two installments — 40 per cent this fiscal and 60 per cent in the next financial year,I&B Minister P R Dasmunsi said.Minimum entry level pay raised to Rs 7,000 from Rs 6,660 per month recommended by the CommissionFinancial implication of Pay Commission on General Budget Rs 15,700 crore; Rs 6400 crore on Railway Budget in 2008-09."The cabinet has approved the pay commission report," Law Minister Hansraj Bhardwaj said after a cabinet meeting

With this this minimum wage for Govt employee is going to be Rs. 10,000/month. The wage arrears are to be paid in two installments with 40% to be paid in FY 09 and remaining 60% in FY10.
Tags: 6th pay commissio…

popen Useful C function to Read Output of Command

"popen" Easy way to read the output of the command from the c program,

In our applications we do like this to read the output of the command. Eg: This example prints the size of the given file. main(int argc, char *argv[])
char cmd[100];
FILE *fp1_p;
unsigned int size; if(argc < 2) {
printf("usage: %s filename\n", argv[0]);
} sprintf(cmd, "ls -l %s | awk -F \" \" \'{print $5}\' > egSize.txt", argv[1]);
fp1_p = fopen("egSize.txt", "r");
fscanf(fp1_p, "%d", &size);
printf("%s file size is %d\n", argv[1], size);

Easy way to do the same thing with popen. main(int argc, char *argv[])
char cmd[100];
FILE *fp1_p;
unsigned int size; if(argc < 2) {
printf("usage: %s filename\n", argv[0]);

C Function To Replace char In String

I have written function to replace a particular char from a string
Eg. removes junk char from string and returns valid string
eg. input string as my+comments
output will be my comments
It returns the pointer to updated string

here we go..
char *replace_char_in_string(char *string, char to_search, char to_replace_with)
char *buf;
int i=0,j=0;
char temp[1024];

while(string[i] !='\0')
if(string[i] == to_search )
temp[j] = to_replace_with;
temp[j++] = string[i++];
temp[j] = '\0';
buf = (char *) malloc(strlen(temp) + 1);
// printf("%s\n",buf);
return buf;
Is there any better way to do this. please do comment.

Abhinav Bindra Wins Gold Medal Olympics 2008

Indian ABHINAV Bindra Wins Gold Medal Olympics 2008
President Pratibha Patil and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Monday congratulated Abhinav Bindra for his "golden performance" in bagging India's first-ever individual gold medal at the Beijing Olympics.
Bindra, who qualified fourth for the 10m air rifle event, shot an overall score of (596+140.5) 700.5 in a thrilling finale which went right down to the last shot.
source Hindustan times
About Abhinav Bindra
Abhinav Bindra (born September 28, 1982) is an Indian shooter specializing in the 10 m Air Rifle event. At the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, he became the first Indian to win an individual gold medal at the Olympic Games and first gold medal since 1980 for India by winning the gold in the 10 m Air Rifle event.

Apart from being a shooter, Abhinav Bindra holds an M.B.A. (Masters in Business Administration). He is the CEO of Abhinav Futuristics, a PC games peripherals distributor based in Chandigarh.
Abhinav Bindra was the yo…

What Is Sarcoidosis Besnier-Boeck Disease Cause of Bernie Mac Death

Sarcoidosis or Besnier-Boeck Disease is Cause of Bernie Mac Death.
check out Bernie Mac - King of the comedy youtube collection
Sarcoidosis,also called sarcoid (from the Greek 'sark' and 'oid' meaning "flesh-like") or Besnier-Boeck disease, is an immune system disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas (small inflammatory nodules) that most commonly arises in young adults. The cause of the disease is still unknown. Virtually any organ can be affected; however, granulomas most often appear in the lungs or the lymph nodes. Symptoms can occasionally appear suddenly but usually appear gradually. The clinical course generally varies and ranges from asymptomatic disease to a debilitating chronic condition that may lead to death.
In the United States, sarcoidosis is more common in people of African descent than Caucasians, with annual incidence reported as 35.5 and 10.9 per 100,000, respectively.Sarcoidosis is less commonly reported in South America, Spain and …

IELTS british council India Results

British Council online IELTS results service is there to check
ielts result

Please note that this online results service is only available through selected British Council managed test centers. The system will not display results older than 28 days.

check out ielts result

or direct link
ielts india, british council india

All the best

Steps For Generating Document On Doxygen

Generating Document using doxygen

In simple Steps.
1) In every (.c or .h) file put this comment after includes.
/** \file filename.ext
* \brief some notes about this file.
* A more extensive description of this file.

/** \file function.h
* \brief This file contains prototypes for functions defined in function.c.
* This file contains prototypes for functions defined in function.c.

NOTE: Period '.' is necessary after \brief sentence.

2) Before every function put this comment:
/** \brief A brief description of my_function().
* A more extensive description of my_function().
* \param aParameter A brief description of aParameter.
* \param bParameter B brief description of bParameter.
* \return A brief description of what myProcedure() returns.

/** \brief get position of field in configfile.
* This function returns the position of the
* …

Boredom a sickness or a creative tool?

"In experiments in the 1970s, psychiatrists showed that participants completing word-association tasks quickly tired of the job once obvious answers were given; granted more time, they began trying much more creative solutions"

"In a recent paper in The Cambridge Journal of Education, Teresa Belton and Esther Priyadharshini of East Anglia University in England reviewed decades of research and theory on boredom, and concluded that it’s time that boredom “be recognized as a legitimate human emotion that can be central to learning and creativity.”

clipped from You’re Checked Out, but Your Brain Is Tuned In Scientists know plenty about boredom, too, though more as a result of poring through thickets of meaningless data than from studying the mental state itself. Much of the research on the topic has focused on the bad company it tends to keep, from depression and overeating to smoking and drug use. Yet boredom is more than a mere flagging of interest or a prec…

Is our universe fine-tuned for life?

Claims of fine-tuning have generally been based on what happens when you vary a single characteristic of the universe, say the strength of gravity, while holding all others constant. That, says Adams, is too artificial a scenario to tell you anything about whether there are other universes that can support life. "The right way to do the problem is to start from scratch," he says. "You have to turn all the knobs and find out what happens." clipped from DON'T take our starry skies for granted. If you were unlucky enough to be living in some other universe, you might have nothing to stare at but black holes. At least, that's the view of a new study that examines the nature of other universes that might support life and suggests that our cosmic habitat is nothing special after all - wondrously starry skies apart. The idea that certain aspects of our universe make it uniquely suited to life has never been properly tested, says Fred Adams of …

CBSE Compartment Result 2008

CBSE Compartment Result 2008 seen at
CBSE - Central board Of Secondary Eduction Compartment Result 2008
Compartmental Examination Results CBSE- SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION(Class XII) 2008
(Chennai & Ajmer Region)
Compartmental Examination Results

(Chennai & Ajmer Region)
Enter your Roll NumberCheck here: www.cbseresults.nic.incbse compartment result 2008, cbse compartment result, cbse compartment results, cbse result,

The Neurological Roots of Genius

Smarter brains tend to be bigger—at least in certain locations. Researchers have fingered parts of the parietal and frontal lobes as well as a structure called the anterior cingulate as important for superior cognition. clipped from Researchers are finding clues to the basis of brilliance in the brain Key Concepts Smarter brains tend to be bigger—at least in certain locations. Researchers have fingered parts of the parietal and frontal lobes as well as a structure called the anterior cingulate as important for superior cognition. Some studies suggest that the brains of brighter people use less energy to solve certain problems than those of people with lower aptitudes do. But under certain circumstances, scientists have also observed higher neuronal power consumption in individuals with superior mental capacities. People often overestimate the importance of intellectual ability. Practice and perseverance contribute more to accomplishment than being smart does. live solar eclipse

Watch live solar eclipse directly from Nasa ( Below people can watch The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) TV live where they can watch educational programs from Nasa and live streaming of various earth events

direct link

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