My Tech notes: August 2008

Unix Documentation

Free Online Unix Training Materials

Lists many links to free Unix training materials.

Pointers and Arrays Materials

Pointers and Arrays materials Explained for C beginners

C FAQ and General Questions C Interview Questions

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Sunday, August 31, 2008

Dealing with Difficult People

clipped from
No matter where we go, we will face people who are negative, people who oppose our ideas, people who piss us off or people who simply do not like us. There are 6.4 billion people out there and conflict is a fact of life
Why Bother Controlling Our Responses?
Hurting Ourselves - One of my favorite sayings is “Holding a grudge against someone is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”
It’s Not About You, It’s About Them
It’s not personal, so why do we take it personally
Battle of the Ego
Anger Feeds Anger. Negativity Feeds Negativity. - Rarely can any good come out of reacting against someone who is in a negative state
Negativity Spreads
Freedom of Speech - People are as entitled to their opinions as you are. Allow them to express how they feel and let it be
 blog it

Saturday, August 30, 2008

A question science can't answer?

What is the origin of the universe? Spacetime itself and all the mass-energy in it were created in the Big Bang some 15 billion years ago. Humans are beginning to understand how the laws of physics allowed for the Big Bang to happen, and are even proposing reasons why the laws of physics have to be as they are. However, it may not be knowable why the laws of physics exist at all.

# What is the mechanism of the universe? The universe consists of fermions and bosons interacting through gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Humans can accurately model those interactions using General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics, and may be close to combining these two theories into a unified theory of the universe.

# What is the fate of the universe? There appears not to be enough mass in the universe to halt its (perhaps asymptotic) expansion into a vast emptiness growing steadily colder and darker.
clipped from

"Can anybody think of a question science can't answer?"

"Is there a God?" shot back a boy near the window.

"Good," said Mr. Campbell, an Anglican who attends church most Sundays. "Can't test it. Can't prove it, can't disprove it. It's not a question for science."

I despise that chicken-hearted answer. There are two reasonable ways to address that. One is to accept the usual open-ended, undefined vagueness of the god entity and point out that the reason it can't be answered is that it is a bad question — it's not even wrong. Science doesn't answer it, but then no discipline can, because it's a garbage question like "what color are invisible elephants?" If that's what window-boy intends with his petty little gotcha, he deserves to have the inanity of his idea disparaged.

The other approach
pin the question down. What god? What actions has it taken in the natural world? How does it influence us specifically? Then you can tackle that god with science by testing the purported effects it has
 blog it

Friday, August 29, 2008 6th Pay Commission Notification Released is the official website of Press Information Bureau Government of India. The website provides official press releases and news updates. The website is not coming now, I have seen some of the direct links form ministry of finance website, check out below links.
Department of Personnel & Training (DoPT) sixth pay commission notification reports, Information can be obtained from Press Information Bureau or more precise information on 6th pay commission notification is obtained from ministry of finance Govt of india website, one can download full report 6th CPC Report | Annex and study.

The following studies have been taken up by the Commission:

» Studies on Formulating the Concept, Principles, and Parameters for Performance-Related Incentives (PRI) in Government

» Study for Estimating the Compensation Package for Government Employees and the Cost to the Government

» A Study of Terminal Benefits of the Central Government Employees


Sixth Pay Commission notification released - Sixth Pay Commission notification can be accessed at:

dopt, pib, ministry of finance, 6th pay commission notification, pay commission notification

Thursday, August 28, 2008

Copy File From Linux to Linux Machine - Use SCP

Today I learn about how to do secure copy from one linux machine to another linux machine.

To copy files from one linux machine to another linux machine, one has to know login name and password for destination linux machine.

simple use: of scp command.

$ scp localfile username@destination_name or_IP:/dir/

it will prompt for password. provide the password and you file is copied.

Below is compete demo..
$ scp ~bhagwat/.htpasswd root@
root@'s password:
.htpasswd 100% 20 0.0KB/s 00:00

Wednesday, August 27, 2008

Useful C #define Functions - set clear bit

There are many useful C #define function, as an embedded software engineer, one need to know about some handy #define function. Below is list of some of the #defines which are being used

1. clear bit
#define clear_bit(val, bit) (val &= (~(1<<.bit))) usage: clear_bit(port0,0); clear zero bit of input is unsigned int
2. set bit

#define set_bit(val, bit) (val |= (1<<.bit)) usage: set_bit(port0,0); set zero bit of input is unsigned int

3. Error handling

#define FATAL do { fprintf(stderr, "Error at line %d, file %s (%d) [%s]\n", \
__LINE__, __FILE__, errno, strerror(errno)); exit(1); } while(0)
if opening a file is failed like
if ((fd = open ("/dev/mem", O_RDWR | O_SYNC)) == -1)

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Better way of Defining directory tree with one command

Better way of Defining directory tree with one command
use the -p option to mkdir this will create parent directories along with their children in a single command.

$ mkdir -p tmp/a/b/c

Sunday, August 24, 2008

strftime - format date and time

strftime - format date and time

size_t strftime(char *s, size_t max, const char *format,
const struct tm *tm);
The strftime() function formats the broken-down time tm according to the format specifica-
tion format and places the result in the character array s of size max.

The strftime() function returns the number of characters placed in the array s, not
including the terminating NUL character, provided the string, including the terminating
NUL, fits. Otherwise, it returns 0, and the contents of the array is undefined.
Note that the return value 0 does not necessarily indicate an error; for example, in many
locales %p yields an empty string.
For more details check man pages.

Saturday, August 23, 2008

Virtual Kernel Memory Layout on ARM Linux

  Kernel Memory Layout on ARM Linux

Russell King
November 17, 2005 (2.6.15)

This document describes the virtual memory layout which the Linux
kernel uses for ARM processors. It indicates which regions are
free for platforms to use, and which are used by generic code.

The ARM CPU is capable of addressing a maximum of 4GB virtual memory
space, and this must be shared between user space processes, the
kernel, and hardware devices.

As the ARM architecture matures, it becomes necessary to reserve
certain regions of VM space for use for new facilities; therefore
this document may reserve more VM space over time.

Start End Use
ffff8000 ffffffff copy_user_page / clear_user_page use.
For SA11xx and Xscale, this is used to
setup a minicache mapping.

ffff1000 ffff7fff Reserved.
Platforms must not use this address range.

ffff0000 ffff0fff CPU vector page.
The CPU vectors are mapped here if the
CPU supports vector relocation (control
register V bit.)

ffc00000 fffeffff DMA memory mapping region. Memory returned
by the dma_alloc_xxx functions will be
dynamically mapped here.

ff000000 ffbfffff Reserved for future expansion of DMA
mapping region.

VMALLOC_END feffffff Free for platform use, recommended.
VMALLOC_END must be aligned to a 2MB

VMALLOC_START VMALLOC_END-1 vmalloc() / ioremap() space.
Memory returned by vmalloc/ioremap will
be dynamically placed in this region.
VMALLOC_START may be based upon the value
of the high_memory variable.

PAGE_OFFSET high_memory-1 Kernel direct-mapped RAM region.
This maps the platforms RAM, and typically
maps all platform RAM in a 1:1 relationship.

TASK_SIZE PAGE_OFFSET-1 Kernel module space
Kernel modules inserted via insmod are
placed here using dynamic mappings.

00001000 TASK_SIZE-1 User space mappings
Per-thread mappings are placed here via
the mmap() system call.

00000000 00000fff CPU vector page / null pointer trap
CPUs which do not support vector remapping
place their vector page here. NULL pointer
dereferences by both the kernel and user
space are also caught via this mapping.

Please note that mappings which collide with the above areas may result
in a non-bootable kernel, or may cause the kernel to (eventually) panic
at run time.

Since future CPUs may impact the kernel mapping layout, user programs
must not access any memory which is not mapped inside their 0x0001000
to TASK_SIZE address range. If they wish to access these areas, they
must set up their own mappings using open() and mmap().

Friday, August 22, 2008

ptet2008 Result Jodhpur

Jai narayan vyas university jodhpur, declared ptet 2008 direct link to check the results

ptet2008 results

Site will come have patience.
For ptet 2008 result official site is and not

Pre Teachers Entrance Test Results 2008 seen at
Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur PTET-2008. declared PTET results for 2008,
Jodhpur University is Accredited as 'A' grade University by NAAC-UGC.
The site is not coming due to lot of people checking the site at a time. ptet 2008 result,

even chched page is not coming for

Try out it will come.

All the best.

Members of Steering Committee PTET 2008. 1, Prof. L. K. Shekhawat, Vice Chanceller, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Chairman, PTET-2008, ptet 2008, Pre Teachers Entrance Test, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur PTET 2008,, ptet2008, ptet,

PTET 2008 (Pre Teachers Entrance test) being conducted by Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, will be held at July 5, 2008 between 2 pm to 5 pm. It has been published on the official website of PTET 2008:, ptet 2008,, ptet, ptet2008 result, ptet2008 result, ptet2008, ptet result

Thursday, August 21, 2008

How to Format a Hard Drive - wikiHow

Format a Hard Drive - wikiHow

How to Format a Hard Drive

from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit

This article includes the basics for high-level formatting a hard drive.


For Windows XP
  1. If you want to save any of the data on the disk, back it up by copying it to a CD or another hard drive. Formatting will destroy ALL of the data on the disk.
  2. Use the Windows XP CD-ROM to boot the computer.
  3. Select the "Recovery Console" option.
  4. At the prompt, type FORMAT C:

For Windows 9x (95, 98, Me)
  1. If you want to save any of the data on the disk, back it up by copying it to a CD or another hard drive. Formatting will destroy ALL of the data on the disk.
  2. Use a startup floppy (sometimes called a "boot disk") to obtain a DOS prompt.
  3. Type FORMAT C:

For Linux or BSD
  1. Boot from a livecd or diskette
  2. Open a terminal window (usually something like xterm or konsole)
  3. Log in as root by typing su and entering the password
  4. Type mkfs.ext2 /dev/hdaxx where you change the ext2 by the filetype you want (e.g. ext2, ext3, reiserfs,...) and the axx by the letter of your drive and the number of the partition you want to format. (e.g. /dev/hda1, /dev/hdc32,...). Using the -j option (mke2fs -j) will create the ext3 (or journaled) file system that is much more resistant to the unexpected power loss.
  5. Under Linux, you can also format the hard drive in FAT file system that is readable from Windows (use mkfs.vfat instead of mkfs.ext2). However such partition cannot store the root of the Linux operating system.


  • Partition(s) must be created on a drive before it is formatted.
  • Give the process some time to complete. Install your operating system of choice, or use the blank disk for another purpose.
  • For more secure formatting, there are programs available which write zeros or garbage characters over the entire disk, making the deleted information unrecoverable.
  • C: and /dev/hda are your primary partitions. If you are trying to format another partition or drive, replace C: or hda with the appropriate drive letter, such as D: or /dev/hdb, for example.


  • Make sure that you format the correct drive, and that you have backed up any data you don't want to lose.
  • Hard drives can have multiple partitions, so be sure to check which drive and which partition you're formatting. For example, a C: and D: partition may exist on one drive. It isn't unusual to have them exist out of sequence due to Microsoft's FAT and NTFS partitioning scheme. For example, C: and E: may be partitions on the first drive, and D: may be a partition on the second drive. If in doubt, you a partition tool such as Gparted or Fdisk to determine which partition is on which drive.

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations

Article provided by wikiHow, a collaborative writing project to build the world's largest, highest quality how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Format a Hard Drive. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.

Wednesday, August 20, 2008

CVS admin Lock Commands Useful

Working on more than one file by multiple developers, need to know CVS commands to control the check in and check out, CVS admin -l command is useful.

cvs admin -l
This will lock the present cvs revision of the file.
Otherthan the one who holds the lock no one else can commit the file.
CVS check-in will fail.
cvs admin -u
This will unlock the file.
Now another user can commit the file or can acquire the lock.
If one developer holds lock on the entire directory then others cannot modify any existing files
but they can add new files.

Tuesday, August 19, 2008

Delhi University Results at

delhi university Declared annual Degree Results for year 2008

School of Open Learning Results can be seen from

Annual DU Results - 2008 (Undergraduate/Postgraduate) Check here

About DU
The University of Delhi is the premier university of the country and is known for its high standards in teaching and research and attracts eminent scholars to its faculty.

The University of Delhi was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the then Central Legislative Assembly.
Only three colleges existed then in Delhi: St. Stephens College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which were affiliated to the University. The University thus had a modest beginning with just three colleges, two faculties (Arts and Science) and about 750 students. In October 1933, the University offices and the Library shifted to the Viceregal Lodge Estate, and till today this site is the nucleus of the University (Main Campus).
At present, there are 14 faculties, 86 academic departments and 79 colleges spread all over the city, with about 2,20,000 students.
All the best.
source du, du result, nifa, delhi university result, delhi university
results,, du results, delhiuniversity,

Monday, August 18, 2008

C-Array Of Strings Manipulation Explained Program

C-Array Of Strings Manipulation Explained
How to declare array of strings?
1. char stringarray[10][10]

2. char *stringarray[10]

I prefer second one for declaration of array of strings,

How to Manipulate Array of strings?
Copy some values in this array,
char *tmp=NULL;

stringarray[0]= malloc(strlen(tmp)+1);
if(stringarray[0] != NULL)

The value from tmp variable is copied to zeroth element of string array.
check out using printf
printf("string array element=%s",stringarray[0]);

Like this one can Do other manipulation on array of strings.

Sunday, August 17, 2008

The Mummy -3 Movie Trailer 2008

The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008) Movie Trailer

The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008) Trailer 2

Saturday, August 16, 2008

Mumbai University Results

Mumbai University Results declared at
check Mumbai University Results
About University
The University of Mumbai (known earlier as University of Bombay) is one of the oldest and premier Universities in India. It was established in 1857 consequent upon "Wood's Education Dispatch", and it is one amongst the first three Universities in India.

As a sequel to the change in the name of the city from Bombay to Mumbai, the name of the University has been changed from "University of Bombay " to "University of Mumbai " ,vide notification issued by the Government of Maharashtra and published in the Government Gazette dated 4th September, 1996.


Friday, August 15, 2008

Protect your Dreams Youtube

Thursday, August 14, 2008

Sixth Pay Commission Report

Law Minister Hansraj Bhardwaj said “The cabinet has approved the 6th pay commission report,” but details are not available.

Here is summary from

  • All recommendations for hike in salaries of civil and defence personnel accepted.
  • The pay panel recommendations will come into effect from January 1, 2006.
  • Arrears to be paid in two installments — 40 per cent this fiscal and 60 per cent in the next financial year,I&B Minister P R Dasmunsi said.
  • Minimum entry level pay raised to Rs 7,000 from Rs 6,660 per month recommended by the Commission
  • Financial implication of Pay Commission on General Budget Rs 15,700 crore; Rs 6400 crore on Railway Budget in 2008-09.
"The cabinet has approved the pay commission report," Law Minister Hansraj Bhardwaj said after a cabinet meeting

With this this minimum wage for Govt employee is going to be Rs. 10,000/month. The wage arrears are to be paid in two installments with 40% to be paid in FY 09 and remaining 60% in FY10.

Tags: 6th pay commission, pay commission,, sixth pay commission news, staffcorner sixth pay commission report

Cabinet approves recommendations of 6th Pay Commission-

Wednesday, August 13, 2008

popen Useful C function to Read Output of Command

"popen" Easy way to read the output of the command from the c program,

In our applications we do like this to read the output of the command.
Eg: This example prints the size of the given file.
main(int argc, char *argv[])
char cmd[100];
FILE *fp1_p;
unsigned int size;
if(argc < 2) {
printf("usage: %s filename\n", argv[0]);
sprintf(cmd, "ls -l %s | awk -F \" \" \'{print $5}\' > egSize.txt", argv[1]);
fp1_p = fopen("egSize.txt", "r");
fscanf(fp1_p, "%d", &size);
printf("%s file size is %d\n", argv[1], size);

Easy way to do the same thing with popen.
main(int argc, char *argv[])
char cmd[100];
FILE *fp1_p;
unsigned int size;
if(argc < 2) {
printf("usage: %s filename\n", argv[0]);
sprintf(cmd, "ls -l %s | awk -F \" \" \'{print $5}\'", argv[1]);
fp1_p = popen(cmd, "r");
fscanf(fp1_p, "%d", &size);
printf("%s file size is %d\n", argv[1], size);

-> man popen for more information on popen.

Tuesday, August 12, 2008

C Function To Replace char In String

I have written function to replace a particular char from a string
Eg. removes junk char from string and returns valid string
eg. input string as my+comments
output will be my comments
It returns the pointer to updated string

here we go..
char *replace_char_in_string(char *string, char to_search, char to_replace_with)
char *buf;
int i=0,j=0;
char temp[1024];

while(string[i] !='\0')
if(string[i] == to_search )
temp[j] = to_replace_with;
temp[j++] = string[i++];
temp[j] = '\0';
buf = (char *) malloc(strlen(temp) + 1);
// printf("%s\n",buf);
return buf;
Is there any better way to do this. please do comment.

Monday, August 11, 2008

Abhinav Bindra Wins Gold Medal Olympics 2008

Indian ABHINAV Bindra Wins Gold Medal Olympics 2008
President Pratibha Patil and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on Monday congratulated Abhinav Bindra for his "golden performance" in bagging India's first-ever individual gold medal at the Beijing Olympics.
Bindra, who qualified fourth for the 10m air rifle event, shot an overall score of (596+140.5) 700.5 in a thrilling finale which went right down to the last shot.
source Hindustan times
About Abhinav Bindra
Abhinav Bindra (born September 28, 1982) is an Indian shooter specializing in the 10 m Air Rifle event. At the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, he became the first Indian to win an individual gold medal at the Olympic Games and first gold medal since 1980 for India by winning the gold in the 10 m Air Rifle event.

Apart from being a shooter, Abhinav Bindra holds an M.B.A. (Masters in Business Administration). He is the CEO of Abhinav Futuristics, a PC games peripherals distributor based in Chandigarh.
Abhinav Bindra was the youngest Indian participant at the 2000 Olympic Games. He won six gold medals at various international meets in 2001. In the 10 m Air rifle event at the 2002 Commonwealth Games, Manchester, he won Gold in the Pairs event and Silver in the individual event. At the 2004 Olympic Games, he broke the Olympic record but failed to win a medal. He is a recipient of the Arjuna award in 2001 and the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award for the year 2001-2002. Abhinav Bindra's potential talent was first spotted by his first coach Lt. Col. J.S. Dhillon.
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india olympic medal, abhinav bindra, olympics, india gold medal olympics, india gold

Sunday, August 10, 2008

Live Score Card India vs Sri Lanka

India vs Sri Lanka live cricket scores | Score And Updates

cricket scores, live cricket score, cricket score, live cricket scores, cricket news, live score, cricinfo, cricket live score, cricket updates, live cricket score, criket

Saturday, August 9, 2008

What Is Sarcoidosis Besnier-Boeck Disease Cause of Bernie Mac Death

Sarcoidosis or Besnier-Boeck Disease is Cause of Bernie Mac Death.
check out Bernie Mac - King of the comedy youtube collection
Sarcoidosis,also called sarcoid (from the Greek 'sark' and 'oid' meaning "flesh-like") or Besnier-Boeck disease, is an immune system disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomas (small inflammatory nodules) that most commonly arises in young adults. The cause of the disease is still unknown. Virtually any organ can be affected; however, granulomas most often appear in the lungs or the lymph nodes. Symptoms can occasionally appear suddenly but usually appear gradually. The clinical course generally varies and ranges from asymptomatic disease to a debilitating chronic condition that may lead to death.
In the United States, sarcoidosis is more common in people of African descent than Caucasians, with annual incidence reported as 35.5 and 10.9 per 100,000, respectively.Sarcoidosis is less commonly reported in South America, Spain and India.
Sarcoidosis Signs and symptoms
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that can affect any organ. Common symptoms are vague, such as fatigue unchanged by sleep, lack of energy, weight loss, aches and pains, arthralgia, dry eyes, blurry vision, shortness of breath, a dry hacking cough or skin lesions.
Treatment read more

Friday, August 8, 2008

IELTS british council India Results

British Council online IELTS results service is there to check
ielts result

Please note that this online results service is only available through selected British Council managed test centers. The system will not display results older than 28 days.

check out ielts result

or direct link
ielts india, british council india

All the best

Thursday, August 7, 2008

Steps For Generating Document On Doxygen

Generating Document using doxygen

In simple Steps.
1) In every (.c or .h) file put this comment after includes.
/** \file filename.ext
* \brief some notes about this file.
* A more extensive description of this file.

/** \file function.h
* \brief This file contains prototypes for functions defined in function.c.
* This file contains prototypes for functions defined in function.c.

NOTE: Period '.' is necessary after \brief sentence.

2) Before every function put this comment:
/** \brief A brief description of my_function().
* A more extensive description of my_function().
* \param aParameter A brief description of aParameter.
* \param bParameter B brief description of bParameter.
* \return A brief description of what myProcedure() returns.

/** \brief get position of field in configfile.
* This function returns the position of the
* field in the config file………………….
* ………………………………………....
* \param i index of field.
* \return returns position of the field in configfile.

3)Just before each variable, put these comments.
/** \brief A brief description of myVariable.
* A more extensive description of myVariable.

int myVariable;

Note: use it only for important variables:

4)Just before each enumeration put these comments.
* \enum some description about this enum.

Beside each field write some description inside /**< description */
enum Fields {
Factory_State, /**< Factory State Flag */
Login_Password, /**< Password required to login */
Model_Name, /**< Model Name of the SerialServer */
MAC_Address, /**< MAC Address of the SerialServer */
. . . .

5)Just before each structure put these comments ------------------------------------------------------------
* \struct some description about this enum.
beside each field write some description inside /**< description */
struct nw2serial_s {
struct mcs7840 * mcs7840_dev; /**< serial device structure */
spinlock_t lock; /**< spinlock for list operations */
unsigned char number; /**< unknown */
. . . . .
Note: for enum and typedef just change the \struct tag to \enum or \typedef.

Project Description for main page:
In main file. keep this description at the beginning of file.
* \mainpage
* write description here.

For TODO put this comment:
* \todo keep todo description here.

For more doxygen tags manual Creating documents:

cd to the directory containing source files and type.

$doxygen –g


$doxygen -g ssdoc

This will create a configuration file called ssdoc.

Open ssdoc and modify it.





If you want header, footer and CSS files then run

$doxygen –w html header.html footer.html stylesheet.css

This will create header.html , footer.html and doxygen.css files,
now set paths for HTML_HEADER, HTML_FOOTER, and HTML_STYLESHEET tags in configuration file (ssdoc)

HTML_HEADER = header.html
HTML_FOOTER = footer.html
HTML_STYLESHEET = doxygen.css

finally run doxygen.

$doxygen ssdoc

This will create two folders ./html and ./latex

For html document open ./html/index.html file.

To get an image above the document modify the header.html file and run doxygen again.
Modify css to get different colors.

Creating PDF document:
To create pdf document just cd to ./latex folder
and type


This will create a pdf refman.pdf in ./latex folder.

Wednesday, August 6, 2008

Boredom a sickness or a creative tool?

"In experiments in the 1970s, psychiatrists showed that participants completing word-association tasks quickly tired of the job once obvious answers were given; granted more time, they began trying much more creative solutions"

"In a recent paper in The Cambridge Journal of Education, Teresa Belton and Esther Priyadharshini of East Anglia University in England reviewed decades of research and theory on boredom, and concluded that it’s time that boredom “be recognized as a legitimate human emotion that can be central to learning and creativity.”

clipped from

You’re Checked Out, but Your Brain Is Tuned In

Scientists know plenty about boredom, too, though more as a result of poring through thickets of meaningless data than from studying the mental state itself. Much of the research on the topic has focused on the bad company it tends to keep, from depression and overeating to smoking and drug use.

Yet boredom is more than a mere flagging of interest or a precursor to mischief.
Some experts say that people tune things out for good reasons, and that over
time boredom becomes a tool for sorting information — an increasingly sensitive
spam filter.
it is far from a passive neural shrug. Using brain-imaging technology,
neuroscientists have found that the brain is highly active when disengaged,
consuming only about 5 percent less energy in its resting “default state” than
when involved in routine tasks
as if the boredom “had the power to exert pressure on individuals to stretch
their inventive capacity,”
 blog it

Tuesday, August 5, 2008

Is our universe fine-tuned for life?

Claims of fine-tuning have generally been based on what happens when you vary a single characteristic of the universe, say the strength of gravity, while holding all others constant. That, says Adams, is too artificial a scenario to tell you anything about whether there are other universes that can support life. "The right way to do the problem is to start from scratch," he says. "You have to turn all the knobs and find out what happens."

DON'T take our starry skies for granted. If you were unlucky enough to be living in some other universe, you might have nothing to stare at but black holes.

At least, that's the view of a new study that examines the nature of other universes that might support life and suggests that our cosmic habitat is nothing special after all - wondrously starry skies apart.

The idea that certain aspects of our universe make it uniquely suited to life has never been properly tested, says Fred Adams of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. "You hear people say our universe is fine-tuned for life, that stars are rare and couldn't form if certain things were different," he says. "The truth is, no one has done the calculations." Adams has now rectified that situation and found that it is not unusual for stars to form that can support life.

 blog it

Monday, August 4, 2008

CBSE Compartment Result 2008

CBSE Compartment Result 2008 seen at
CBSE - Central board Of Secondary Eduction Compartment Result 2008

Compartmental Examination Results

(Chennai & Ajmer Region)

Compartmental Examination Results

(Chennai & Ajmer Region)

Enter your Roll Number

Check here:


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Sunday, August 3, 2008

Steve Winwood Higher Love Lyrics From Youtube

Steve Winwood - Higher Love

Here are the lyrics... from Youtube

Song 6
1988 Roll With It concert

Music video by Steve Winwood performing Higher Love

Saturday, August 2, 2008

The Neurological Roots of Genius

Smarter brains tend to be bigger—at least in certain locations. Researchers have fingered parts of the parietal and frontal lobes as well as a structure called the anterior cingulate as important for superior cognition.
clipped from

Researchers are finding clues to the basis of brilliance in the brain

Key Concepts

  • Smarter brains tend to be bigger—at least in certain locations. Researchers have fingered parts of the parietal and frontal lobes as well as a structure called the anterior cingulate as important for superior cognition.
  • Some studies suggest that the brains of brighter people use less energy to solve certain problems than those of people with lower aptitudes do. But under certain circumstances, scientists have also observed higher neuronal power consumption in individuals with superior mental capacities.
  • People often overestimate the importance of intellectual ability. Practice and perseverance contribute more to accomplishment than being smart does.
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    Friday, August 1, 2008 live solar eclipse

    Watch live solar eclipse directly from Nasa ( Below people can watch The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) TV live where they can watch educational programs from Nasa and live streaming of various earth events

    direct link

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