Skip to main content

CVS Short Notes And Useful Commands For Daily Usage

CVS Short Notes And Useful Commands For Daily Usage
Creating a directory tree from a number of files

When you begin using CVS, you will probably already have several projects that can be put under CVS control. In these cases the easiest way is to use the import command.

An example is probably the easiest way to explain how to use it. If the files you want to install in CVS reside in ‘wdir’, and you want them to appear in the repository as ‘$CVSROOT/yoyodyne/rdir’, you can do this:

$ cd wdir
$ cvs import -m "Imported sources" yoyodyne/rdir yoyo start

Unless you supply a log message with the ‘-m’ flag, CVS starts an editor and prompts for
a message. The string ‘yoyo’ is a vendor tag, and ‘start’ is a release tag. They may fill no purpose in this context, but since CVS requires them they must be present


Adding files and folder to CVS individually

To add a folder or file to CVS repository in some existing path, follow these steps.

For example, you want to create a folder “nuport” inside the path “firmware/projects”. First you should have local copy of that “firmware/projects”.

$ cd firmware/projects
$ mkdir nuport
$ cvs add nuport

Suppose you want to add a file to CVS which is inside the “nuport” directory then

$ cvs add filename.c
$ cvs ci –m “comment” filename.c

Remember that for adding files unless you do “cvs ci” the file will not be added completely to CVS.

NOTE: You can use “cvs ci” or “cvs commit”. Both commands are same.


Adding Binary Files

There are two issues with using CVS to store binary files. The first is that CVS by default converts line endings between the canonical form in which they are stored in the repository (linefeed only), and the form appropriate to the operating system in use on the client (for example, carriage return followed by line feed for Windows NT).

The second is that a binary file might happen to contain data which looks like a keyword so keyword expansion must be turned off. The ‘-kb’ option available with some CVS commands insures that neither line ending conversion nor keyword expansion will be done. Here is an example of how you add a binary file “testfile” using the ‘-kb’ flag:
$ cvs add -kb tesfile
$ cvs ci –m "First checkin" testfile


Setting custom versions

If you want to set the numeric revisions, the ‘-r’ option to CVS commit can do that. The ‘-r’ option implies the ‘-f’ option, in the sense that it causes the files to be committed even if they are not modified.

For example, to bring all your files up to revision 3.0 (including those that haven’t changed), you might invoke:

$ cvs commit -r 3.0

Note that the number you specify with ‘-r’ must be larger than any existing revision number. That is, if revision 3.0 exists, you cannot ‘CVS commit -r 1.3’. If you want to maintain several releases in parallel, you need to use a branch.


Check status of a file in working folder

For viewing the status of tags that the file has use :

$ cvs status –v backend.c

The states, as reported by the status command, are:

Up-to-date
The file is identical with the latest revision in the repository for the branch in use.
Locally Modified
You have edited the file, and not yet committed your changes.
Locally Added
You have added the file with add, and not yet committed your changes.
Locally Removed
You have removed the file with remove, and not yet committed your changes.
Needs Checkout
Someone else has committed a newer revision to the repository. The name is slightly misleading; you will ordinarily use update rather than checkout to get that newer revision.
Needs Patch
Like Needs Checkout, but the cvs server will send a patch rather than the entire file. Sending a patch or sending an entire file accomplishes the same thing.
Needs Merge
Someone else has committed a newer revision to the repository, and you have also made modifications to the file.
Unresolved Conflict
A file with the same name as this new file has been added to the repository from a second workspace. This file will need to be moved out of the way to allow an update to complete.
File had conflicts on merge
This is like Locally Modified, except that a previous update command gave a conflict. If you have not already done so, you need to resolve the conflict.
Unknown
CVS doesn’t know anything about this file. For example, you have created a new file and have not run add.


Giving tags

For setting up tags to files use the ‘cvs tag’ command. For example to tag a file called backend.c use the following:

$ cvs tag release-0-4 backend.c

The example in the previous section demonstrates one of the most common ways to choose which revisions to tag. Namely, running the CVS tag command without arguments causes CVS to select the revisions which are checked out in the current working directory.

For example, if the copy of ‘backend.c’ in working directory was checked out from revision 1.4, then CVS will tag revision 1.4. Note that the tag is applied immediately to revision 1.4 in the repository; tagging is not like modifying a file, or other operations in which one first modifies the working directory and then runs CVS commit to transfer that modification to the repository.

One potentially surprising aspect of the fact that CVS tag operates on the repository is that you are tagging the checked-in revisions, which may differ from locally modified files in your working directory. If you want to avoid doing this by mistake, specify the ‘-c’ option to CVS tag. If there are any locally modified files, CVS will abort with an error before it tags any files:

$ cvs tag -c rel-0-4
CVS tag: backend.c is locally modified
CVS [tag aborted]: correct the above errors first!


Use “cvs add” recursively to check-in code instead of “cvs import”

Suppose you want to check-in a large source which is inside a folder name “newfolder”.

To add the folder “newfolder” and it sub-directories into CVS, first do

$ find newfolder –type d –print | xargs cvs add

Then to add the files inside the “newfolder” and its subdirectories

$ find newfolder –name CVS –prune –o –type f –print | xargs cvs add

Then we have to commit these into CVS. The “cvs commit” is recursive, so we can give the following command

$ cvs commit –m “comment” newfolder/.

NOTE Please verify if everything has been checked in with these steps by checking out and compiling. I found some files (only which are last) didn’t get added while doing so, for kernel. This might be due to very large number of files in kernel source.


Important tips:

1) Use “cvs –help-commands” to get a list of supporting commands.
2) Use “cvs H ” to get help on the particular command. For example to get help on the command “commit” give as

$ cvs –H commit

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Xilinx's Interview Questions

Xilinx is the world's one of largest supplier of programmable logic devices. It has started R & D department in Hyderabad, India. It has broad scope for embedded system programming in device driver in linux.

Before the interview you have to feel the Xilinx form with information containing all academic details, current/previous employer, contacts of employer( to check out info about you), current ctc, expected ctc and expected date of joining, etc.

I appeared two back to back technical interviews.

The first interview was taken by a young man look like just crossed 30's.

He asked me to tell me about myself.

Then he asked my experience.

He checked my expertise in resume.

He asked questions about RTOS, and Linux Device Drivers.
What is RTOS ? Define it.
How a linux device driver works?
How a character driver works?

He looked at my project summaries and started to ask in depth questions about each project.

After that he asked me to write to delete nth node from starting in Singly Linked Li…

Rajasthan Board 10th Results | rajedubord.nic.in | RBSE

Raj Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan Results at rajeduboard.nic.inBoard of Secondary Education, Rajasthan Ajmer declared result of secondary examination today at 4PM official site is rajedubord.nic.in

check Secondary Examination- 2008 Result
(To be announced on July 1st, 2008 at 4:00 PM)
source
http://rajresults.nic.in/

Declared result
Praveshika Examination-2008 Result
(Announced on June 25, 2008 at 4:00 PM)

The history of the Board of Secondary Education Rajasthan (BSER) is a remarkable panorama of progressive record of the futurological vision for developing a dynamic system of various sub-systems of examinations and highlights of the academic excellence of the last four decades. The BSER took rapid strides for promotion and development of Secondary Education in Rajasthan, spread over 3,42,239 sq. km. and in more than 6000 schools located in 32 districts involving 8.5 lakhs students for Secondary and Senior Secondary Examination in the year 2000.

At present the Board is conducting …

Delete Last Char in String C program Simple Way

How to delete the last character in a string?
Lets say I have a string "/data/share/" I want to delete the last character from the string ie "/" so that output will be "/data/share"; Here are some methods to do this in C language.
one way could be use of strncat() function;
char*strncat(char*restricts1, constchar*restricts2, size_tn);
The strncat() function appends not more than n characters from s2, and
then adds a terminating `\0'.
#include
Another simple way is,
say the string variable is str_p
Then simply put
str_p[(strlen(str_p)-1)] = '\0';
And you are done;