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Friday, February 27, 2009

Linux Essential Shortcuts and Commands

Linux essential shortcuts and sanity commands

Switch to the first text terminal. Under Linux you can have several (6 in standard setup) terminals opened at the same time.
Switch to the nth text terminal.
Print the name of the terminal in which you are typing this command.

Switch to the first GUI terminal (if X-windows is running on this terminal).
Switch to the nth GUI terminal (if a GUI terminal is running on screen n-1). On default, nothing is running on terminals
8 to 12, but you can run another server there.

(In a text terminal) Autocomplete the command if there is only one option, or else show all the available options.
THIS SHORTCUT IS GREAT! It even works at LILO prompt!

Scroll and edit the command history. Press to execute.

Scroll terminal output up. Work also at the login prompt, so you can scroll through your bootup messages.

Scroll terminal output down.
(in X-windows) Change to the next X-server resolution (if you set up the X-server to more than one resolution). For multiple resolutions on my standard SVGA card/monitor, I have the following line in the file /etc/X11/XF86Config (the first resolution starts on default, the largest determines the size of the "virtual screen"):
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480" "512x384" "480x300" "400x300" "1152x864"
(in X-windows) Change to the previous X-server resolution.

(in X-windows) Kill the current X-windows server. Use if the X-windows server crushes and cannot be exited normally.

Useful Tips
I. If the output of a command scrolls too fast and you missed
something, press SHIFT+PAGEUP key to scroll backup.

II. You need not type the full name of a file or a command the TAB key
has an autocomplete feature in bash.
For example, let's say you have a file one_awefully_long_name_file
in your home directory, and want to look at its contents. You can say:
$ cat one[TAB]
The file name will be completed, provided no other file has
its name starting from 'one'. This tip can be applied any time you have
to enter a file-name or path-name at the command-prompt.
Similarly, you can also autocomplete commands also:
$ Xc[TAB]
will automatically insert:
$ Xconfigurator
As if that were not enough, pressing TAB twice will list all the
files/commands starting with that pattern. Try these:

$ cat a[TAB][TAB]

III. You can work in multiple terminals, running KDE in one and pure
console on another. Press CTRL+ALT+F2. See the login prompt? Usually
there will be six such virtual terminals. You can be using all of them.
Press CTRL+ALT+F-keys to switch. CTRL+ALT+F7 returns you to X if you
were originally using X Window like

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